Haryana State Board HBSE 7th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 7th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations
HBSE 7th Class History Eighteenth Century Political Formations Textbook Questions and Answers
Match the following:
|Subedar||a revenue farmer|
|Faujdar||a high noble|
|Chauth||a Mughal military commander|
|Kunbis||a bond of Sikh warriors|
|Umara||tax levied by the Marathas|
|Faujdar||a Mughal military commander|
|Ijaradar||a revenue farmer|
|Misl||a bond of Sikh warriors|
|Chauth||tax levied by the Marathas|
Fill in the blanks:
- Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the ……………. .
- Umara and Jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughals ………….. .
- Asaf Jah was given charge of the Deccan subedari in …………….. .
- The founder of the Awadh Nawabi was ………….. .
- 18th century
- Burhan-ul-Mulk-Saidat Khan.
State whether true or false:
- Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.
- Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.
- Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
- Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.
What were the offices held by Shaidat Khan?
Offices held by Shaidat Khan Subedari, Foujdari, Diwani. He was responsible for managing political, financial and military affairs.
Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the Jagirdari system?
The Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal tried to do away with the Jagirdari system to reduce the influence of Mughals in their states.
How were the Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?
The following steps were taken by the Sikhs in the eighteenth century to organise themselves:
1. Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas and later on misls.
2. They combined their forces which were known as the grand army (dal Khalsa).
3. The entire body used to meet at Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions known “resolutions of the Guru (gurunatas).”
4. Guru Gobind righ organised the Sikhs with the inspiration that their destiny was to rule.
5. The well-knit organization of the Sikhs enabled them to put up a successful resistance to the Mughal governors first and then to Ahmad Shah Abdali who had seized the rich province of the Punjab and the Sarkar of Sirhind from the Mughals.
Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?
The Marathas wanted to expand beyond the Deccan to challenge Mughal Empire in the peninsula.
What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?
The policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position were as follows:
1. As he had become the actual ruler of the Deccan, he brought skilled soldiers and administrators from northern India who welcomed the new opportunities in the south.
2. He appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs.
3. Mughal emperors could not interfere in the administration of Asaf Jab.
Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?
During the eighteenth century, banks were not so organised so merchants were more influential than bankers. They used to provide more loan opportunities at higher rate of interest.
Today, however the bankers are more influential. They provide loans and other financial assistance at cheaper rates. They also act as the safeguard of public money.
Did any of the kingdoms mentioned in this chapter develop in your state? If so, in what ways do you think life in the state would have been different in the eighteenth century from what it is in the twenty-first century?
The students should develop their own answers. As an illustration in Punjab state, many princely states were acting as a puppet in the hands of the British. Today, India being a democratic country. It is different from the eighteenth century when we had to follow the directions of a monarch.
Find out more about the architecture and culture associated with the new courts of any of the following Awadh, Bengal or Hyderabad.
Account of the development of the architecture and culture associated with the new courts of Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad.
(i) The rulers of Awadh followed secular political policy. The Nawabs did not discriminate between Hindus and Muslims. The people of both community were given state jobs.
(ii) Construction of Mask and temple were allowed.
(iii) The prolonged period of peace and of economic prosperity of the nobles under the government of the Nawabs resulted in time in the growth of a distinct Lucknow culture around the Awadh court. Lucknow, for long an important city of Awadh and the seat of the Awadh Nawabs after 1775, soon rivalled Delhi in its patronage of the arts and literature. It also developed as an important centre of handicrafts. Crafts and culture also percolated to towns under the patronage of local chieftains and zamindars.
Collect popular tales about rulers from any one of the following groups of people the Rajputs, Jats, Sikhs or Marathas.
The most outstanding Rajput ruler of the 18th century was Raja Sawai Jaui Singh of Amber (1681-1743). He was a distinguished states man, law-maker arid reformer, But most of all he show as a man of science in an age when Indians were oblivious of scientific progress. He founded the city of Jaipur and made it a great seat of science and art. Jaipur was built upon strictly scientific principles and according to a regular plan. Its broad streets are intersected at right angles.
Jai Singh was above everything a great astronomer. He erected observatories with accurate and advanced instruments, some of them of his own invention, at Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi and Mathura. His astronomical observations were remarkably accurate. He drew up a set of tables, entitled Zij Muhammad Shahi, to enable people to make astronomical observations. He had Euclid’s “Elements of Geometry” translated into Sanskrit as also several works on trignometry, and Napier’s work on the construction and use of logarithms.
Jai Singh was also a social reformer. He tried to enforce a low to reduce the lavish expenditure which the Rajput had to incur on their daughter’s weddings. This had given rise to the evil practice of infanticide. The remarkable prince ruled Jaipur for nearly 44 years from 1699 to 1743.
HBSE 7th Class History Eighteenth Century Political Formations Important Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
How was Aurangzeb responsible for depleting the military and financial resources of his empire?
Aurangzeb fought a long war in’the Deccan which resulted in the depletion of the military and financial resources of the empire.
What were the two major groups or factions in which the empire was further divided into?
The two major groups or factions were Iranis and Turapis.
What were the three states that were carved out of the old Mughal Provinces in the 18th century?
Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad.
Why did Zamindars of Bengal borrow money from bankers and moneylenders?
Zamindars of Bengal borrowed money to pay the revenue in cash.
Why was ‘rakhi’ introduced?
The system of‘rakhi’ was introduced to give protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20% of the produce.
Short Answer Type Questions
Who were revenue farmers?
In the state of Awadh, revenue farmers were local bankers and Mahajans who were highest bidders for the right to collect tax. These revenue farmers agreed to pay the state a fixed sum of money.
Where did Banda Bahadur established sikh rule?
Banda Bahadur established Sikh rule between the “Sutlej” and the Jamuna rivers.
After Shivaji’s death who led Marathas?
After Shivaji’s death effective power in the Maratha state was wielded by a family of Chitpavan Brahmanas, who served Shivaji’s successors as Peshwa (or principal minister).
Name some Maratha chiefs.
Sindhia of Gwalior, Gaekwad of Baroda, Bhonsle of Nagpur and Holkar of Indore were a few powerful Maratha chiefs.
Which taxes were collected by Maratha king?
The Maratha king collected the taxes of Chauth and Sardeshmukhi in the entire region that he captured from Mughal emperors.
Long Answer Type Questions
How did administrative system break down under weak successors of Aurangzeb?
1. The weak successors of Aurangzeb could not keep vigil on their powerful mansabdars.
2. Nobles appointed as governors, often controlled the offices or revenue and military administration.
3. This gave them extraordinary political, economic and military powers over vast regions of the Mughal empire.
In this way, the Mughal administrative system declined under the weak successors of Aurangzeb.
Why did peasants and zamindars of North India rebel against Mughal emperor?
1. The revolts of peasants and zamindars were caused by the pressures of mounting taxes.
2. Due to challenge to the emperor’s authority, nobles became outrageous and increased taxes on land or produce.
3. This was a big trouble to the peasants who were unable to pay increased taxes. Thus, they rebelled.
How did the Nawab of Awadh decrease Mughal influence in the Awadh?
1. The Nawab of Awadh reduced the number of office holders (jagirdars) appointed by the Mughals.
2. He also reduced the size of jagirs and appointed his own loyal servants of vacant positions.
3. The accounts of jagirdars were checked to prevent cheating, and the revenues of all districts were reassessed by official appointed by the Nawab’s court.
4. He seized a number of Rajput Zamindari and the agriculturally lands of the Afghans of Rohilkhand.
Thus, the Nawab of Awadh decreased ‘ Mughal influence in the Awadh.
Eighteenth Century Political Formations Class 7 HBSE Notes
- Great Mughals: From 1526 to 1707 is called the age of the Great Mughals.
- Later Mughals: The Mughal successors of Aurangzeb were knows as Later Mughals.
- Generation: A successive step in natural descent.
- Succession: The order by which an office changes hands.
- Swaraja: It means own kingdom. The term is used by the Marathas.
- A loose union of states is known as a confederacy.
- Chauth: It was the 1/4th of revenue paid to the government under Marathas.
- Sardeshmukhi: A tax equal to 1/10th of the land revenue levied by Marathas.
- Bigotry: The term Bigotry is used for sectarian religious outlook usually against other religions.
- Spear: A weapon consisting of a pointed head on a long shaft is called a spear.
- Guerilla Warfare: A kind of irregular warfare that is fought from behind. A council of eight ministers under Shivaji called the Astha Pradhan.