Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class Science Important Questions Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms Important Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 9th Class Science Important Questions Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms
Very Short-Answer Type Questions
Science of classification of organism is known as Taxonomy.
Who classified the animals on the basis of their habitat ?
Greek thinker Aristotle classified the animals into different groups based upon their habitat and habits.
Which type of cells have nucleus, cell organelles and cell wall ?
In which cell have the capacity to produce multicellular organisms ?
Cell with nucleus.
Name the principle due to which some cell group together to form a single organism.
Division of labour.
What are plants ?
The organisms which produce their own food (autotrophs) are called plants.
What are animals ?
The organisms which are heterotrophic known as animals.
Who proposed the concept of evolution ?
Charles Darwin in his book “The Origin of Species” in 1859.
Which are primitive or lower organisms ?
The group of organisms still possess their ancient body on earth is known as primitive or lower organisms.
Which are advanced or higher organisms ?
The group of organisms who have undergone lot of changes in their body are called advanced or higher organisms.
Name the biologists who classified kingdom of organisms into broad categories.
Ernst Haeckel (1894), Robert Whittaker (1959) and Carl Woese (1977).
What is the name of classification proposed by Whittaker ?
Which biologist classified the Monera Kingdom into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria ?
Species is a group of organisms that are capable of breeding amongst themselves so as to produce fertile young ones. It is the smallest unit of classification.
What is the basic unit of classification ?
What is nomenclature ?
The system of naming animals and plants is termed as nomenclature.
Who is the father of Taxonomy ?
Why does system of writing scientific names called bionomial system ?
In this system every organism is given two names. One name is generic and the other is specific name.
What is the scientific name of human ?
What is the International System of nomenclature?
What are different categories of classification ?
Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum and Kingdom.
What is Genus ?
Similar species together form genus.
How many kinds of kingdoms classified the living world in ancient time ?
What is classification ?
Arranging of organism into groups on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities, which also show their relationship is called classification.
Write an importance of classification.
It makes the study of organisms easy.
Which scientist classified the all organisms of the world into plantae and animalia kingdoms?
Carolus Linnaeus in 1758.
Who raised the third kingdom Protista?
E.H. Haeckel in 1866.
Who proposed the fourth kingdom Monera and fifty kingdom Animalia ?
Robert H. Whittaker in 1969.
Which is the living organisms grow in whole life ?
How many sub-kingdoms of plant kingdom divided by Eichler ?
Two: Cryptogamae and Phanerogamae.
Fungi cannot prepare their own food. Why ?
Because chlorophyll is not present in them.
How many types of Angiosperms ?
They are of two types:
(i) Dicot plants
(ii) Monocot plants.
Give two examples of Gymnosperms.
Give one difference between algae and fungi.
Chlorophyll present in algae but absent in fungi.
What is lichen?
The symbiotic relationship of algae with fungi is called lichen.
Which sub-group of Cryptogams related to fungi ?
Give one example of bryophyta.
Give one example of pteridophyta.
What are cryptogams ?
The plants which do not bear seeds and spores located in their sex orgAnswer:
What is phanerogams ?
Those plants in which seeds are produced after reproduction are called phanerogams.
What is meant by gymnosperms ?
The plants bear naked seeds are called gymnosperms.
What is meant by angiosperms ?
The plants which bear seeds into the fruit is called angiosperms. .
What is the main feature of plantae ?
They are autotrophic.
What is the main feature of Animalia ?
What is porifera ?
Those animals which bear pores all over their body are known as porifera.
Give two examples of coelenterata.
Hydra and sea anemone.
What is the name of flatworm ?
What is the scientific name of tapeworm ?
Which group of animals is heterotrophic ?
Give one example of annelida.
Short-Answer Type Questions
What is the science of Taxonomy and Classification ?
The branch of biology in which organisms are classified is called Taxonomy. First of all D. Candolli used this word Taxonomy involves identification, nomenclature and classification of organisms.
It arranges the organisms in groups or set on the basis of their relations. Animals and plants are ranked in different categories as follow: Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. First of all, Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) gave idea about it in his book ‘Systema Naturae Therefore, Carolus Linnaeus is known as father of Taxonomy.
Why is it necessary to classify the living organisms ? Explain in your own words.
The number of organisms in the world is very large. These organisms possess some similarities and some dissimilarties. The structure of some organisms is simple and that of others is complex. The organisms differ in their structure, nature, life-cycle, nutrition, respiration and reproduction, etc. Therefore, so as to make their study convenient, their classification is essential. The organisms are classified on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities. The science of classifiation provides a base for other branches of biology.
What is classification ? Explain its importance.
Grouping organisms on the basis of similarities, dissimilarities and their inter-relationships is called classification.
(1) Classification gives a base to the other branches of biology.
(2) Classification makes the study of organisms easy and convenient.
(3) Classification provides a clear picture of organisms.
(4) It provides information about inter-relationship of organisms.
(5) The study of geography is completely based on classification of plants and animals.
(6) The classification of organisms also contributes to the development of knowledge in other subjects.
(7) The branches of biology like ecology, cell biology, etc. have developed due to science of classification.
What is binomial nomenclature ? Explain with an example.
Binomial Nomenclature: This system of nomenclature was given by Carolus Linnaeus. According to this system 4200 species of animals were named and were published in a book ‘SystemaNaturae’in 1758. In this system each plant or animal is given two names : The first name indicates the genera and is known as generic name whereas the second name indicates the specific name or species. Linnaeus is known as the father of Taxonomy.
the scientific name of mango is Mangifere indica, that of mustard is Brassica compestris and that of man is Homo sapiens.
In all these the first name is generic name and the second name is that of species. All these names are universal and are used throughout the world.
What are the salient features of two kingdom system of classification ? Why are bacteria and fungi classified along with plants ?
The living organisms are generally classified into two kingdoms : kingdom Animalia and kingdom Plantae. In both these kingdoms the characteristic features of organisms are same but they still differ in some characters. The organisms belonging to kingdom animalia are motile and cannot prepare their own food as they lack chlorophyll.
On the other hand the organisms belonging to kingdom plantae are (generally) autotrophs and prepare their own food. They are non-motile and remain confined to the same place. Their cell wall is made up of cellulose. They contain chlorophyll and are green. Bacteria and fungi do not contain green coloured pigment called chlorophyll, so they are not autotrophs. These obtain food/nourishment from dead or living organisms.
Still they are classified along with plants (kingdom Plantae) because:
(1) Their cell wall is made up of cellulose.
(2) They obtain their food/nourishment in soluble form.
Describe the different categories of classification ?
Categories of the classification are the following:
What is Cryptogamae and Phanerogamae ?
1. Cryptogamae: They are lowest group of plants. They lack flowers and seeds plants. They have bidden reproductive sex orgAnswer: Asexual reproduction takes place by the formation of spores.
2. Phanerogamae: They are highest group of plants. They bear roots, stem, leaves, flower, fruit and ’ seeds. They reproduce sexually by means of seeds. The seed contains embryo and nourishing material.
How is cryptogamae classified ?
They are flowerless plants. Reproductive organs are hidden in them. There is no external flower and seed consists in them. According to classification, by Lindale and Eichler, cryptogamae is divided into three main groups:
(i) Thallophyta; e.g. Ulothrix, Penicillium, Lichens, etc.
(ii) Bryophyta; e.g. Funaria, Marchantia, etc.
(iii) Pteridophyta; e.g. Ferns, Selaginella, etc.
What is the difference between monocot and dicot plants ?
These are the following differences between monocot and dicot plants :
1. Seeds with one cotyledon.
2. The leaves of these plants have parallel veination.
3. The root system is fibrous in them.
4. There is no secondary growth.
5. Stem divided into nodes.
Example: Wheat, maize, bajra, etc.
1. Seeds with two cotyledons.
2. Veination in their leaves is reticulate with a network of veins.
3. Tap root system is present in them.
4. Secondary growth is present.
5. Stem is not divided into nodes.
Example: Mustard (sarson), pea, gram, etc.
What is animalia ? Write names of main phylum and important features of this group. Answer: Animalia : The multicellular organisms with lack cell wall are called animalia. Their important features are following :
(i) They are heterotrophic and autotropic.
(ii) Their growth is definite.
(iii) These are free moving organisms.
They can be classified in the following :
Describe main features of porifera phylum.
The main features of porifera are following:
(i) They mostly occur in saline water although some are found in fresh water.
(ii) They are multicellular.
(iii) Cells in them are loosely held together. Thus, they have cellular level of organisation.
(iv) Skeleton is not found in them.
(v) The shape of their body is the vase or sac like.
(vi) They bear pores all over body, with simple large opening known as osculum on the top.
(vii) They possess a unique canal system.
(viii) They reproduce by asexual and sexual methods.
Sycon, Spongia, Euplectella, Spongilla, etc.
Describe main features of Coelenterata.
The main features of Coelenterata is following:
(i) They are solitary or colonial.
(ii) Anus is absent in them.
(iii) They possess radial symmetry.
(iv) They possess coelenterata.
(v) They bear tentacles.
(vi) Their body have stinging cells called cnidoblasts.
(vii) Polyp and medusa come into their life cycle one by one.
(viii) Reproduction is usually asexual in polyp form and sexual in the medusa form Examples : Hydra, Obelia, Sea anemone, Coral, etc.
Describe the main features of platyhelminthes.
Platyhelminthes are characterised by the following main features:
(i) They are often dorso ventrally flattened.
(ii) They are usually endoparasites.
(iii) They are triploblastic, the body develops from three layers.
(iv) Their body having bilateral symmetry.
(v) Sexual reproduction takes place in them.
(vi) Only one hole is present in the alimentary canal.
(vii’) They have dorsoventrally flat and leaf like or ribbon like body.
Tapeworm, planaria, liver- fluke, etc.
Write the main features of the nematoda phylum.
Following are the main features of nematoda phylum:
(i) They are endoparasites.
(ii) They possess bilateral symmetry.
(iii) Alimentary canal is complete.
(iv) They are pseudocoelomates. Body cavity is not a true coelom in them.
(v) They are unisexual.
(vi) They are triploblastic.
(vii) Body size is microscopic and other are several centimetres in length.
Examples: Ascaris, Roundworm, Pinworm, etc.
Write main features of annelida phylum.
Annelida phylum are characterised by the following main features:
(i) They live in moist soil, in freshwater or saline water.
(ii) They have long and palpented body.
(iii) They are first animals with true body- cavity or coelom.
(iv) Nephridia is present in them for the purpose of excretion.
(v) Animals have bilateral symmetry.
(vi) They are unisexual or bisexual.
(vii) Some forms have unjointed locomotary appendages, the parapodia. Others have setae for locomotion.
Examples: Earthworm, leech, nereis, sea mouse, etc.
What are the main features of arthropoda ?
Arthropoda is characterised by the following main features :
(i) They occur everywhere, on land, in soil, in fresh and saline water.
(ii) They are heterotrophic.
(iii) They possess jointed legs.
(iv) Their body is segmented and divided into three regions: head, thorax and abdomen.
(v) Interior part of the body forms the distinct head, which bears well-developed sense orgAnswer:
(vi) Their body is covered externally by a chitinous exoskeleton.
(vii) Circulatory system is of open type.
(viii) Haemocoel present in them.
(ix) Male and female reproductive organs are separate.
Examples: Cockroach, crab, scorpion, bee, butterfly, mosquito, etc.
Write features of hemichordata phylum.
Features of hemichordata are the following :
(i) They are worm-like unsegmented organisms.
(ii) They are all marine animals.
(iii) They may be solitary or colonial.
(iv) Their body is divisible into proboscis, collar, and trunk.
(v) They are bilaterally symmetrical.
(vi) Respiration takes place by gill slits.
(vii) Sexes are mostly separate.
Examples: Balanoglossus, Cephalodiscus, etc.
Write major differences of non-chordata and chordata.
Non-chordata and chordata have following differences :
1. There is no tail behind the anus.
2. Haemogloblin plasma dissolved in their blood.
3. Heart, if present, is dorsal.
4. Nervous system is ventral and solid.
5. Pharynx gill slits are absent
1. Tail is present behind their anus.
2. Haemoglobin is present in their red blood cells.
3. Heart is ventral and in a pericardial cavity.
4. Nervous system is dorsal and hollow.
5. Pharynx gill slits are present.
Write important features of chordata phylum and classified this phylum. Answer: Important features of chordata phylum are the following :
(i) Presence of nerve chord and hollow nervous system.
(ii) They all have paired gill slits.
(iii) Solid, elastic notochord occurs in all chordata and in any stage of life.
(iv) Presence of tail behind the anus stage.
Chordata is divided into three subphyla:
Essay Type Questions
Explain the classification of cryptogamae.
These are flowerless and seedless plants. They have hidden reproductive orgAnswer: They do not bear flowers and seeds externally.
They are divided into three divisions:
1. Thailophyta: They do not possess a stem, root or leaf and so called as thallus. Embryo formation after fertilization is absent. Their sex organs are single-celled. There is three clear group of plants in this division :
(A) Algae: Ulothrix, Cladophora, Ulva.
(B) Fungi: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Agaricus.
(C) Lichens: like Lichen perennail, Fruticose lichen.
The body of these plants are divided into structures like roots, stem or leaf. They grow on moist shady placed. Vascular tissue are absent in them. Their reproductive organs are multicellular. Embryo formation takes place after fertilisation.
Examples: Riccia, Funaria, Marchantia etc.
The plant body is differentiated into root, stem and leaves. Vascular tissues are present in them. Their sex organs are multicellular. Embryo formation takes place after fertilization in them.
Examples: Fern (Pteris, selaginella).
Give the names of major phylurii with one or two features with examples.
Major features with examples of the animal’s phylum are following:
|Sub-Phylum||Phylum and its simple characters||Example|
|(i) Protozoa (unicellular)||1. Protozoa: They are single celled, their body shape is unlimited.||Amoeba, Euglena|
|(ii) Metazoa (multicellular)||2. Porifera: They are multicellular. Whole body in is perforated.||Sponges, Sycon|
|3. Coelenterata: Stinging cells are present in them.||Hydra, Jellyfish, Obelia|
|4. Platyhelminthes: The body of these worms are soft and flat. The true coelom absent in them.||Tapeworm, liverfluke|
|5. Nematoda:They have cylindrical body made up of cutical. Alimentary canal is complete in them.||Ascaris (Hookworm)|
|6. Annelida: They have long body with segments. True coelom present in them.||Earthworm, leech|
|7. Arthropoda: They have segmented body. Respiration occurs by gill, tracheae, book lungs, etc.||Cockroach, Bee, Mosquito.|
|8. Mollusca: Body is soft and covered with hard shell. Their body is unsegmented.||Pila, Octopus, Unio|
|9. Echinodermata: Their body is covered with calcareous spines. They are unsegmented.||Sea-cucumber, Starfish.|
|10. Protochordata: They possess a combination of invertebrate and choredata characters. Body is divided into proboscis, collar and trunk.||Balanoglossus Saccoglossus.|
|11. Chordata: Nerve chord and gill slits occur in them. Presence of notochord in them.||Whale, Rat, Monkey|
To differentiate between monocots and dicots.
Take some seeds of wheat, gram, pea, maize, rice, tamarind and put into water. When they swollen completely, then classified and note in table. Those have one cotyledon (wheat, maize, rice) are monocots and those have two cotyledons (gram, pea, tamarind) are dicots. Make table to see other difference in them.
|Reason for difference||Monocot||Dicot|
|1. Root||Adventitious||Tap root|
|2. Leaf||Parallel veination||Reticulate veination|
|3. Stem||Noded||Without nodes|
|4. Seed||One cotyledon||Two cotyledons|
Quick Review of the Chapter
1. Father of Taxonomy is:
(B) Robert Hook
(D) Carolus Linnaeus
(D) Carolus Linnaeus
2. Which is not the base for the classification of organisms like Monera?
(A) cell structure
(C) body organization
3. Which animal is not Monera?
(D) blue-green algae
4. Respiration in reptiles takes place:
(A) by gills
(B) by skin
(C) by lungs
(D) by skin and slits
(C) by lungs
5. Mammalia animal is:
6. Skeleton is hollow in:
7. Who does not contribute in the classification of animals in a large kingdom ?
(A) Ernst Haeckel
(B) Robert Whittaker
(C) Carl Woese
8. Which scientist divided the Monera Kingdom into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria?
(B) Carl Woese
(B) Car! Woese
9. Which of the following is a gymnosperm plant?
10. Which of the follow ing has outer covering?
(D) all of the above
(D) all of the above
11. Which of the following group have mammary glands?
(D) none of the above