HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class English Solutions Grammar Conjunctions Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

What are Sentence Connectors or Conjunctions ?
Sentence connectors or conjunctions are those words or phrases which help us in linking sentences. These linkers are used for combining words, phrases or clauses.

Sentences connectors वे शब्द या शब्द-समूह होते हैं जो शब्दों, शब्द-समूहों या उप-वाक्यों को आपस में जोड़ते हैं; जैसे-

Suman and Kusum are sisters.
Work hard or you will fail.
I know that he is a wise man.
The thief ran away when he saw the policeman.
उपरोक्त वाक्यों में and, or, that और when, sentence connectors हैं। And Suman और Kusum नाम के दो शब्दों को जोड़ता है, ‘or’ दो phrases ‘work hard’ और ‘you will fail’ को जोड़ता है और that’तथा’when’उप-वाक्यों (Clauses) को जोड़ते हैं।

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

Kinds of Sentence Linkers (Conjunctions) :

Sentence linkers निम्नलिखित तीन प्रकार के होते हैं-
1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions
2. Subordinating Conjunctions
3. Correlative Conjunctions
अब हम एक-एक करके इनका अध्ययन करेंगे।

1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions (linkers):

दो समान या बराबर के दर्जे वाले शब्दों या phrases (शब्द-समूहों) को जोड़ने वाले conjunctions को co-ordinating conjunctions कहते हैं; जैसे-

कुछ महत्त्वपूर्ण Co-ordinating conjunctions हैं-

and, or, but, only, while, so, for, then, both…….. and, as well as, not only…… but also, either…… or, neither…….. nor, otherwise, else, still (or yet), nevertheless, therefore, etc.

2. Subordinating Conjunctions (linkers):

जो conjunctions किसी subordinate clause को main clause से जोड़ने के लिए प्रयुक्त हों, उन्हें subordinating conjunctions कहते हैं; जैसे-
Wait here till he comes back.
You will fail if you do not work hard.
He sat down after he had delivered the speech.
I met him while I was going to college.

कुछ महत्त्वपूर्ण subordinating conjunctions हैं-
because, as, since, so that, lest, that, in order that, if, provided, as if, unless, otherwise, so ……. that, such …….. that, as …. as, as much as, more than, no less than, though, although, however, as far as, when, before, after, while, till, until, as soon as, no sooner …….. than, as long as, etc.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

3. Correlative Conjunctions (linkers):

जिन conjunctions को जोड़ों (pairs) के रूप में प्रयोग किया जाए, उन्हें correlative conjunctions कहते हैं। ये आपस में एक-दूसरे से या अन्य व्यक्ति या वस्तु से संबंध दर्शाती हैं। कुछ महत्त्वपूर्ण correlative conjunctions हैं-

either ……… or, neither ……… nor, such ……… as, though ……… yet, such ……… that, both ……… and, as ……… as, as ……… so, so ……… that, no sooner ……… than, scarcely/hardly ……… when, not only ……… but also, rather ……… than.
For example:
Either Ram or Sham has stolen the pen.
He is not such a man as you can hate.
He is both handsome and intelligent.
No sooner had I reached the station than the train started.
Hardly did the teacher leave the class when the students started making a noise.
हम मुख्य sentence linkers (conjunctions) का अध्ययन एक-एक करके करेंगे।

Uses Of Various Sentence Linkers (Connectors)

AS:

(a) It is used to show ‘because’ (“क्योंकि” अर्थात वाक्य के शुरू में कारण को बताने के लिए)
(i) It is raining. I shall not go to the office.
As it is raining, I shall not go to the office.

(ii) I was tired. I sat down to rest.
As I was tired, I sat down to rest.

(b) To show “when” इसका प्रयोग “जब” को बताने के लिए होता है-
I reached the railway station. The train started.
As I reached the station, the train started.

(c) When two works continue together (जब दो कार्य साथ-साथ चलें)
(i) She worked. She sang.
She sang as she worked.

(ii) He stammers. He speaks.
He stammers as he speaks.

(d) To show something happening gradually (शनैः शनैः होने वाले कार्य के लिए)
The sun rises. The fog disappears.
As the sun rises, the fog disappears.

(e) To express ‘the time when’ (वह समय जब” को दर्शाने के लिए)
He was going to the office. I saw him.
I saw him as he was going to the office.

(f) To show ‘manner’ ((“तरीके” को बताने के लिए)
He ordered me. I did the work likewise.
I did the work as he ordered me.

(g) For comparison (तुलना के लिए)
Sita is tall, Gita is equally tall.
Gita is as tall as Sita is.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

SINCE:

(a) It is used to show reason (कारण बताने के लिए)
I was busy. I could not meet him.
Since I was busy, I could not meet him.

(b) To show the length of time for some fixed point (किसी निश्चित बिंदु तक समय की लंबाई के लिए)
Mohan went to Delhi. He has not written to me after that.
Mohan has not written to me since he went to Delhi.

WHILE:

(a) To show the duration of time (समय की अवधि को दर्शाने के लिए)
(i) He was playing in the garden. During that time, sister was working.
While he was playing in the garden, his sister was working.

(ii) The clouds were thundering. The frogs were croaking.
While the clouds were thundering, the frogs were croaking.

(iii) I was playing in the ground. I lost my pen.
I lost my pen while playing in the ground.

(b) To say ‘but’ (‘लेकिन’ को कहने के लिए)
He likes tea. But his brother likes coffee.
He likes tea while his brother likes coffee.

(c) एक समय में दो अलग-अलग व्यक्तियों या समूहों के द्वारा किए जाने वाले अलग-अलग या विपरीत कार्यों का वर्णन करने के लिए-
(i) The teacher was teaching. The boys were making a noise.
The teacher was teaching while the boys were making a noise.

(ii) Some men were going to the fair. Others were coming back.
Some men were going to the fair while others were coming back.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

THAN:

(a) For comparison with comparative degree (तुलना के लिए)

(i) Ram is intelligent. Sham is more intelligent.
Sham is more intelligent than Ram.

(ii) The moon is big. The sun is bigger.
The sun is bigger than the moon.

(b) It is also used with would, rather and no sooner-
(i) I would die. I will not beg.
I would rather die than beg.

(ii) We reached the station. The train started.
No sooner had we reached the station than the train started.

JUST THEN:

‘Just then’ is used to denote some action which takes place suddenly when some other action has already been going on.
(“Just then’का प्रयोग उस कार्य को बताने के लिए होता है जो उचानक तब हो जाए जब कोई और कार्य पहले से ही चल रहा है।)

(i) He prayed to God to send rain. Suddenly clouds appeared in the sky.
He prayed to God to send rain, just then clouds appeared in the sky.

(ii) The students were making a lot of noise. The principal came there.
The students were making a lot of noise, just then the principal came there.

(iii) The thief was coming out of the house. A policeman reached there.
The thief was coming out of the house, just then a policeman reached there.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

JUST BECAUSE:

Just because tells the reason for something. This shows that often the reason for something is trivial and not very important.
(“Just because” किसी चीज का कारण बताता है। इससे पता चलता है कि अकसर किसी चीज का कारण तुच्छ है और महत्त्वपूर्ण नहीं।)

(i) He did not lend you money. You should not hate him for that.
You should not hate him just because he did not lend you money.

(ii) I didn’t complain. You must not suppose that I was satisfied.
Just because I did not complain, you must not suppose that I was satisfied.

UNTIL (तक नहीं):

‘Until’ means up to the time when. For example: the sentence “Let’s wait until the rain stops” means that we should wait up to the time when the rain stops.
(“Until” का अर्थ है जब तक कोई अन्य कार्य नहीं हो जाता।)

(i) They waited for the police. They didn’t move anything up to that time.
They did not move anything until the police came.

(ii) You promise to help her. She will not go up to that time.
She will not go until you promise to help her.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

TILL (तक):

Till is used to tell about some time limit,
(0 We stayed there till 5 o’ clock.
(ii) Please wait here till I return.

IF (यदि):

Future Tense वाले वाक्यों में यदि (option) को व्यक्त करने के लिए।
(i) You will fail if you do not work hard.
(ii) The match shall be cancelled if it rains today.

UNLESS (यदि नहीं):

Future Tense वाले वाक्यों में ‘यदि नहीं’ को व्यक्त करने के लिए
(i) Unless you work hard you will fail.
(ii) I shall not attend the meeting unless I am personally invited.

LEST:

इसका अर्थ है “कहीं ऐसा न हो”; (Lest का प्रयोग चेतावनी देने के लिए should वाले वाक्यों में करते हैं।)
(i) You should work hard. If you don’t, you may fail.
Work hard lest you should fail.

(ii) I ran fast. I feared that I might miss the train.
I ran fast lest I should miss the train.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

WHEN:

इसका अर्थ है “जब” या “उस समय”; जैसे-
(i) They arrived. At that time we were arguing.
When they arrived, we were arguing.

(ii) The police came. It was three o’clock at that time.
It was three o’ clock when the police arrived.

ALTHOUGH:

इसका अर्थ है “यद्यपि” अर्थात किसी कार्य का किसी बात के बावजूद होना या न होना।
He worked hard. He did not succeed.
He did not succeed although he worked hard.

SO….. THAT:

इसमें कोई बात किसी अन्य बात पर आधारित होती है।
He is very poor. He cannot pay his fees.
He is so poor that he cannot pay his fees.

OTHERWISE:

इसका अर्थ है ‘नहीं तो’।
Walk fast. If you don’t, you will miss the train.
Walk fast otherwise you will miss the train.

BEFORE (से पहले):

The doctor came. The patient had already died.
The patient had died before the doctor came.
Look before you leap.

AFTER (के बाद):

Turn off the tap after use.
He posted the letter after he had written it.

BECAUSE (क्यौंकि):

To express the reason farm (कारण बताने के लिए)
(0 He failed. He did not work hard.
He failed because he did not work hard.

(ii) I can’t come to school. I am suffering from fever.
I can’t come to school because I am suffering from fever.

SO/THEREFORE (इसलिए):

To express the result (परिणाम बताने के लिए)
(i) He did not work hard. He failed in all subjects.
He did not work hard so he failed in all subjects.

(ii) Aman is working very hard. She will top the class.
Aman is working very hard, therefore, she will top the class.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

THAT (की):

To combine two simple sentences. (दो साधारण वाक्यों को जोड़ने के लिए)
(i) The earth is round. The teacher told us.
The teacher told us that the earth is round.

(ii) He is a sincere worker. All know this.
All know that he is a sincere worker.

IF (कि क्या):

To combine a simple sentence with an interrogative sentence starting with a Helping verb
(साधारण वाक्यों को सहायक क्रिया से शरू होने वाले प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य के साथ जोड़ने के लिए)

(i) May I take your pen ? Please tell me.
Please tell me if I may take your pen.

(ii) Can you swim? I want to know this.
I want to know if you can swim.

AND (और):

(a) To express two similar qualities and actions
(दो समान विशेषताओं और कार्यों का वर्णन करने के लिए)
(i) Someone pulled the chain and the train stopped.
(ii) He came in and sat beside me.

(b) To express the result according to action (कार्य के अनुकूल परिणाम का वर्णन करने के लिए)
(i) He worked hard and got very good marks.
(ii) He did his best and achieved the goal.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

BUT (लेकिन):

(a) To express two opposite qualities and actions (दो विपरीत गुणों और कार्यों का वर्णन करने के लिए)
(i) The bus overturned but none was injured.
(ii) I went to meet him but he was not at home.

(b) To express the result opposite to action (कार्य के विपरीत परिणाम का वर्णन करने के लिए)
(i) He worked hard but failed.
(ii) Our team played well but lost the match.

WHAT (क्या/जो):

To express something (किसी विषय-वस्तु का वर्णन करने के लिए)
You want something. Tell me this.
Tell me what you want ?

WHEN (कब/जब):

To express point of time (निश्चित समय का वर्णन करने के लिए)
(i) Do you know when the next train will arrive ?
(ii) Someone picked my pocket when I was getting off the train.

WHY (क्यों):

To know the reason (कारण जानने के लिए)
(i) You have rejected my application. Tell me the reason.
Tell me why you have rejected my application.

(ii) I can’t explain why he has not come today.

WHERE (कहाँ जहाँ):

To tell about the place (स्थान का वर्णन करने के लिए)
(i) Tell me where you live.
(ii) This is the place where Gandhiji was born.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

WHO (कौन किसने/जो जिसने):

To tell/know about some person (किसी व्यक्ति के बारे में बताने या जानने के लिए)
(i) Tell me who stole my pen.
(ii) This is the boy who won the fifst prize.

WHOSE (किसका जिसका):

To tell/know about some person (किसी व्यक्ति के बारे में बताने या जानने के लिए)
(i) This is Mrs. Usha. Her son is a doctor.
This is Mrs. Usha whose son is a doctor.

(ii) Do you know whose bag is this ?

WHOM (किसे जिसे जिन्हें):

For person (व्यक्तियों के लिए)
(i) Those die young whom the gods love.
(ii) Tell me whom you gave my book.

WHICH (कौन सी/जो):

To tell/know about some object (किसी चीज के बारे में जानने या बताने के लिए)
(i) Give me the book which is lying on the table.
(ii) The car which I bought last year has been stolen.

HOW (कैसे):

To tell/know about the method (विधि का वर्णन करने के लिए)
(i) He solved the sum. Did he tell you the method ?
Did he tell you how he solved the sum ?

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

Exercises For Practice (Solved)

Exercise 1

Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctions:
1. I am very tired. Give me a cup of ………… coffee ………… tea.
2. There are thirty boys ………… twenty girls in the class.
3. I am helping you ………… you are friend of my son.
4. Mohan is tall ………… his brother is short.
5. The current was fast, ………… we swam across the river.
6. She sings ………… a nightingale does.
7. He cried ………… a mad man.
8. ………… the traffic rush was very heavy, I did not reach on time.
9. ………… Kapil Dev is at the crease, our team can hope to achieve a big total.
10. ………… did the teacher enter the class ………….. the boys stood up.
Answers:
1. I am very tired. Give me a cup of either coffee or tea.
2. There are thirty boys and twenty girls in the class.
3. I am helping you because you are friend of my son.
4. Mohan is tall but his brother is short.
5. The current was fast, nevertheless we swam across the river.
6. She sings as a nightingale does.
7. He cried like a mad man.
8. Because the traffic rush was very heavy, I did not reach on time.
9. As long as Kapil Dev is at the crease, our team can hope to achieve a big total.
10. No sooner did the teacher enter the class than the boys stood up.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences given below with appropriate sentence connectors:
1. …………. he says is not correct.
2. …………. he would succeed was beyond doubt.
3. Wait here …………. I return.
4. Strike the iron …………. it is hot.
5. …………. he is my friend, I trust his word.
6. Nothing is more pleasant …………. climbing a mountain.
7. …………. she left the house, she remembered her purse.
8. She speaks English better …………. I do.
9. …………. she was sharpening a pencil, she cut her finger.
10. …………. I was getting off the bus, I slipped and injured my foot.
Answers:
1. What he says is not correct.
2. That he would succeed was beyond doubt.
3. Wait here until he would succeed was beyond doubt.
4. Strike the iron while it is hot.
5. As he is my friend, I trust his word.
6. Nothing is more pleasant than
7. As she left the house, she remembered her purse.
8. She speaks English better than I do
9. While she was sharpening a pencil, she cut her finger.
10. As I was getting off the bus, I slipped and injured my foot.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

Exercise 3

Use appropriate sentence connectors:
1. Do …………. you are advised.
2. It is Mohan …………. won the 1st prize.
3. Make hay …………. the sun shines.
4. Work hard …………. you should fail.
5. …………. you walk fast, you will miss the train.
6. I waited for him …………. the clock struck seven.
7. The man was angry …………. the vendor had cheated him.
8. …………. the teacher came, the students became silent.
9. We crossed the river …………. the current was; fast.
10. Speak …………. you think fit.
Answers:
1. Do as you are advised.
2. It is Mohan who won the 1st prize.
3. Make hay while the sun shines.
4. Work hard lest you should fail.
5. Unless you walk fast, you will miss the train.
6. I waited for him till the clock struck seven.
7. The man was angry because the vendor had cheated him.
8. As soon as the teacher came, the students became silent.
9. We crossed the river though the current was; fast.
10. Speak when you think fit.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

Exercise 4

Use suitable sentence connectors into the blank spaces in the following sentences:
1. You will not get the telephone number …………. you put a coin in the slot.
2. …………. you say so, I must believe it.
3. Men will reap …………. they sow.
4. Mohan speaks English better …………. I do.
5. We shall play …………. the bell goes.
6. She could not see clearly …………. it was very dark.
7. I called him yesterday …………. he did not come.
8. Hardly had he reached the platform …………. the train arrived.
9. It has been a year ……….. I saw him.
10. The children were playing ………… the parents were quarrelling.
Answers:
1. You will not get the telephone number unless you put a coin in the slot.
2. Since you say so, I must believe it.
3. Men will reap as they sow.
4. Mohan speaks English better than I do.
5. We shall play until the bell goes.
6. She could not see clearly because it was very dark.
7. I called him yesterday but he did not come.
8. Hardly had he reached the platform when the train arrived.
9. It has been a year since I saw him.
10. The children were playing while the parents were quarrelling.

Exercise 5

Join each pair of sentences using the sentence linkers given in the brackets:
1. You should wait here. He will return soon, (until)
2. He has been ill. He came here in July last, (since)
3. He walks down to his school. He never reaches his school late, (still)
4. The pen is mighty. The sword is not so mighty, (than)
5. Everybody loves him. He is honest, (because)
6. I lay thinking. My friend dropped in just then, (as)
7. People do not like him. He shirks work, (because)
8. I will not rise from my seat. I should be asked to rise, (until)
9. He laughs at me. Any fool will do like that, (as)
10. I bought this house. Two years have passed, (since)
Answers:
1. Wait here until he returns.
2. He has been ill since he came here in July last.
3. He walks down to his school still he never reaches his school late.
4. The pen is mightier than the sword.
5. Everybody loves him because he is honest.
6. As I lay thinking, my friend dropped in.
7. People do not like him because he shirks work.
8. I won’t rise from my seat until I am asked to.
9. He laughs at me just as any fool will do.
10. Two years have passed since I bought this house.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

Exercise 6

Join the following pair of sentences using the sentence linkers given in the brackets:
1. You should recover fully. You must take light food till then, (until)
2. I Cannot attend my office. I am not feeling well, (because)
3. Remain where you are. Wait for my return, (until)
4. Five months have passed. His father died in May. (since)
5. She took a taxi. It was raining, (because)
6. Mohan was angry. He had suffered loss in business, (because)
7. Do not go. Let me get ready, (until)
8. I do not know the script. I can’t read this letter, (since)
9. I shall give in writing. You desire it. (since)
10. He wastes his time. He cannot pass the test, (as)
Answers:
1. You must take light food until you recover fully.
2. I cannot attend office because I am not feeling well.
3. Remain where you are until I return. ’
4. It is five months since his father died in May.
5. She took a taxi because it was raining.
6. Mohan was angry because he had suffered loss in business.
7. Do not go until I get ready.
8. Since I do not know the script, I can’t read this letter.
9. Since you desire it, I shall give in writing.
10. As he wastes his time, he cannot pass the test.

Exercise 7

Combine the sentences in each of the following pairs into one sentence using the sentence linkers given in the brackets:

1. The water was cold. He crossed the river, (although)
2. He is poor. He is honest, (although) ,
3. He is very rich. He is miserly, (although)
4. The moon is big. The sun is bigger, (than)
5. He came out. He remembered the key. (as)
6. The teacher was teaching. Amit was looking out of the window, (while)
7. He is very poor. He cannot buy a bicycle, (because)
8. Work hard. You will get first division, (and)
9. He can see. He can hear either, (either or)
10. Rakesh was there. His friends were also there, (as well as)
Answers:
1. Although the water was cold, yet he crossed the river.
2. Although he is poor, yet he is honest.
3. Although he is very rich, yet he is miserly.
4. The sun is bigger than the moon.
5. He remembered the key as he came out.
6. Amit was looking out of the window while the teacher was teaching.
7. He cannot buy a bicycle because he is very poor.
8. Work hard and you will get first division.
9. He can either see or hear.
10. Rakesh as well as his friends were there.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

Exercise 8

Combine the sentences in each of the following pairs into one sentence using the sentence linkers given in the brackets:

1. He wastes his time. He cannot pass the examination, (as)
2. I can not decide the case. I will hear both the parties, (until)
3. The moon is big. The sun is bigger, (than)
4. We have no money. We cannot buy a new dress, (since)
5. The train was crossing the bridge. The accident took place then, (while)
6. I will come back soon. Do not move from here, (till)
7. The sun rose. The fog disappeared, (as)
8. I was playing. I lost my purse, (while)
9. He came here. He has been ill. (since)
10. You did not do your home work. You were punished, (because)
Answers:
1. He cannot pass the examination as he wastes his time.
2. I cannot decide the case until I hear both the parties.
3. The sun is bigger than the moon.
4. Since we have no money, we cannot buy a new dress.
5. The accident took place while the train was crossing the bridge.
6. Do not move from here till I come back.
7. The fog disappeared as the sun rose.
8. I lost my purse while playing.
9. He has been ill since he came here.
10. You were punished because you did not do your home work.

HBSE 9th Class English Grammar Conjunctions

Exercise 9

Combine the sentences in each of the following pairs into one sentence using the sentence linkers given in the brackets:

1. A cell-phone is an essential item these days. You should always keep it with you. (because)
2. You can expect an excellent return. You have invested a lot of money in your business, (as)
3. Work hard. You will not pass, (otherwise)
4. The maintenance of a Maruti car is easy. I want to purchase it. (because)
5. You are very hard working. You are bound to get success, (as)
6. The cat is away. The mice will play, (when)
7. Smriti is ill. I must help Smriti. (since)
8. The pick-pocket saw the policeman. He ran away, (as soon as)
9. Kalidas was a great poet. I like him. (because)
10. Sanjay is tall. Sunil is taller, (than)
Answers:
1. You should always keep a cell-phone with you because it is an essential item these days.
2. You can expect an excellent return as you have invested a lot of money in your business.
3. Work hard otherwise you will not pass.
4. I want to purchase a Maruti car because its maintenance is easy.
5. You are bound to get success as you are very hard working.
6. When the cat is away, the mice will play.
7. Since Smriti is ill, I must help her.
8. As soon as the pick-pocket saw the policeman, he ran away.
9. I like Kalidas because he was a great poet.
10. Sunil is taller than Sanjay.

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