Haryana State Board HBSE 6th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 12 Buildings, Paintings, and Books Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 6th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 12 Buildings, Paintings, and Books
HBSE 6th Class History Buildings, Paintings, and Books Textbook Questions and Answers
Match the following :
|Stupa||Place where the image of the deity is installed.|
|Mandapa||Circular path around the stupa|
|Garbhagriha||Place in a temple where people could assemble.|
|Mandapa||Place in a temple where people could assemble.|
|Garbhagriha||Place where the image of the deity is installed.|
|Pradakshinapatha||Circular path around the stupa|
Fill in the blanks :
- ________ was a great astronomer.
- Stories about the gods and goddesses are found in the ________.
- ________ is recognised as the author of the Sanskrit Ramayana.
- ________ and ________ are two Tamil epics.
- Silappadikaram, Manimekalai.
Make a list of the chapters in working. What are the metals which you find mention of metals objects mentioned or shown in those chapters?
List of the chapters in which we find mention of metal working :
- In the earliest cities..
- What Books and Burials Tell us.
- Kingdoms, Kings and An Early Republic.
- Vital Villages, Thriving Towns.
- Traders, Kings and Pilgrims.
Read the story on page 130. In what ‘ ways is the monkey king similar to or different from the kings you read about in Chapter 6 and 11?
The monkey king had similar powers as other kings. He is intelligent, diplomatic and brave. He has the ability to take right decisions. When he observes the situation of the attack on his community by the King’s men, he makes a quick plan to save his army. First, he let all of them cross the river. As he is the last, he gets tired and exhausted. He falls down and is dead. This way, he proves himself to be a great protector and saviour of his army and kingdom. He has all the good qualities that a good human king possesses.
Find out more and tell a story from one of the epics.
The epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata teach us a lot from their stories.
One of the stories of Mahabharata runs like this: Yudhishtra, the victor in the Kurukshetra war, ruled the Kuru kingdom wisely. After sometime, his brothers and Draupadi decided to retire to the forest to lead an austere life. On the day, they were leaving, two Brahmins approached Yudhishtra. Brahmin A told him that he had bought a piece of land from Brahmin B for building a house, and having paid the money, he had legally registered the dead. When he started to dig the land for laying the foundation he had discovered a pot of gold.
Brahmin B came to know about this and was claiming the gold as it was his ancestors who had obtained the title for the land, whatever was found in the land automatically belonged to him. Yudhishtra heard the two Brahmins and turned to Bhima who was nearby. He wanted to know what Bhima thought of the dispute. Bhima told his brother, “Respected elder brother, yesterday these two Brahmins came to me with the same problem.
Brahmin A, the new owner of the land, said that he had only bought the land and hence had no claim over the treasure. But Brahmin B would have nothing of it. The treasure came from the land which now belonged to Brahmin A, he said. In fact, they are telling just the opposite of what they are presenting today. This means that from today Dwaparayuga is over and Kaliyuga is bom.” In Kaliyuga, where we live, morals are : completely dead.
List some steps that can be taken to make buildings and monuments accessible to differently abled people.
Round, tall, big and small buildings and monuments are accessible to differently abled people. In these buildings bodily remains of abled can be kept. Their teeth,, bones, ashes, clothes can also be placed there.
Try and list as many uses of paper you can.
Uses of paper:
- It is used for printing books.
- It is used for making note-books on which we write.
- It is used for making post-cards, inland post-cards and acrogroms through which we can convey message from one part to another.
- Paper is also used for making postal stamps and revenue stamps.
- Our currency is also made up of paper.
If you could visit any one of the places described in this chapter which one would you choose and why?
If we visited Delhi, definitely we would like to visit Mehrauli. The Iron Pillar situated at Mehrauli is the one of the finest example of the skill of Indian crafts persons. It is made of Iron and weighted over three tonnes. The height of the pillar is about 7.2 m and it was made 1500 years ago. On this pillar the date of Chandragupta (ruler of Gupta empire) was clearly mentioned. Even today this pillar look like so as it was 1500 years ago.
We visited there because at this place we can get the glimpse of‘Golden Age’ of Indian History. We can get exact date about the Gupta Dynasty and their extent of empire.
HBSE 6th Class History Buildings, Paintings, and Books Important Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
How do we come to know that Iron Pillar at Mehrauli was made about 1500 years ago?
We came to know about the date of Iron Pillar because there is an inscription on the pillar mentioning a ruler named Chandra, who probably belonged to the Gupta dynasty.
What are epics?
Epics are grand, long compositions about heroic men and women, and include stories about gods.
What is a pradakshina patha? Why was it built.
Pradakshina patha was laid around the stupa. Devotees walked on this path to pay their
Short Answer Type Questions:
How were stupas and temples built?
Building stupas and temples was not an ordinary job. It needed huge,wealth which only kings or queens could afford.
There were several stages in building a stupa or temple. Firstly, good quality stone had to be found, quarried and transported to the place that was often carefully selected for the new building. Secondly, these rough blocks of stone had to be shaped and covered into pillars, and panels for walls, floors and ceilings. Thirdly, these had to be placed in precisely the right position. Kings and queens spend money from their treasury to pay the crafts persons.
Describe the paintings at Ajanta.
- Most of the paintings inside the dark caves were done in the light of torches.
- The colours of the paintings are vivid even after 1500 years.
- The colours were made of plants and minerals.
- The artists who created these splendid works of art remain unknown.
Give a brief description of the iron Pillar at Mehrauli.
The Iron Pillar at Mehrauli is a remarkable example of the skill of the Indian artisans and craftspersons. It is made of iron, is 7.2 m high and weighs about 3 tonnes. It was made about 1500 years ago and has not rusted in all these years. It was probably made by a ruler of the Gupta dynasty.
In your own words, write the story about the Tamil epic ‘Silappadikaram’.
The Tamil epic Silappadikaram was composed by a poet named Ilango. It is a story of a merchant named Kovalan, who lived in Puhar, and fell in love with the court girl Madhavi. Kovalan neglected his wife Kannagi. Later Kovalan and Kannagi left Puhar and went to Madurai. Kovalan was wrongly accused of theft by the court jeweller of the Pandya king. The king sentenced Kovalan to death. Kannagi’ destroyed the entire city of Madurai. She was full of grief and anger.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Write the salient features of earliest Hindu temples.
Some Hindu temples were also built during this period. The deities worshipped in these shrines were Vishnu, Shiva and Durga. The most important part of the temple was the garbhagriha which was a room where the image of the chief deity was placed. It was at this place that priests performed religious rituals and devotees offered worship to the deity.
The garbhagriha had a tower known as the shikhara built on its top. This marked the place as a sacred one. Building shikharas require careful planning. Most temples also had a mandapa. This was a hall like structure meant for common people to assemble.
Mahabalipuram and Aihole in south India were famous for their temples. These were stone temples. The monolithic temples of Mahabalipuram were very beautiful. Each of these temples was carved out of a huge, single piece of stone. It is therefore known as monoliths. The Durga temple at Aihole was built about 1400 years ago.
Describe the development of architecture under Satavahanas.
Architecture : Marked progress was made in the field of architecture. The Satavahana rulers took interest in building caves, viharas and monasteries. Chaityas or large halls with a number of columns and stupas. Most of the rock caves in the Deccan were cut during this period. The caves, monasteries, chaityas and stupas of Orissa, Nasik, Karle and Bhuj are fine specimen of contemporary architecture and decoration.
Chaitya was a large hall with a number of columns. The vihara had a central hall. The Chaitya of Karle was most famous. It is 40 metres long, 15 metres wide and 15 metres high. It has rows of 15 columns on each side. Each of these columns is built on a stair like square plinth. Each pillar has a capital figure of an elephant, a horse of a rider on the top. The viharas were meant as places of residence for the monks. At Nasik there are three viharas carrying the inscriptions of Gautamiputra and Nahapana.
The most famous of these monuments are the stupas. Among them the Amaravati Stupa and Nagarjunakonda Stupa are most famous. The stupa was a large round structure built over some relic of the Buddha. The Amaravati Stupa measures 162 metres across the base and its height is 100 ft. Both these stupas are full of sculptures.
How were stupas and temples built?
(i) Good quality stone was found, quarried and transported to the place that was often carefully chose for the new building.
(ii) Rough blocks of stones were shaped and carved into pillars and panels for walls, floors and ceilings.
(iii) They were often placed in precisely the right position.
(iv) The money for the temples and stupas was got from:
- Kings and queens spent money from their treasury to pay the crafts persons.
- The gifts from devotees were used to decorate the buildings.
(v) Merchants, farmers, garland makers, perfumers, smiths and hundreds of men and women also paid for decorations and their names we re inscribed on pillars, railings and walls.
Buildings, Paintings, and Books Class 6 HBSE Notes
- Puranas : The puranas are 18 in number. The Puranas are valuable to historians and antiquarians as a source of political history on account of the genealogies even though they can be used with great caution and care.
- Gandhara School of Art: A form of art that flourished and developed around Gandhara and had a Greek influence.
- Mathura School of Art: A form of art that developed and flourished around Mathura and was totally in Indian style.
- Stupa: the dome-shaped semi-spherical building is known as a stupa which contains the relics of Buddha.
- Chaityas : The halls in which Buddhist monks offer their prayer.
- Viharas : Monasteries for Buddhist monks are known as Viharas.
- Shikhara : It means a very high square and storeyed tower.
- Mandapa: A gathering place for the people, the temple campus, or a place in the temple where people could assemble.
- Garbhagriha : A place or room in a temple where the images of the chief deities were placed.
- Silappadikaram : Silappadikaram was the oldest Tamil epic composed by Ilango 1800 years ago.
- Manimekalai : Manimekalai is another well-known epic of Tamil literature composed by Sattanar around 1400 years ago.