Haryana State Board HBSE 8th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 8th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside
HBSE 8th Class History Ruling the Countryside Textbook Questions and Answers
Match the following:
|(iii) nij||cultivation on ryot’s land|
|(iv) ryothi||cultivation on planter’s own land|
|(iii) nij||cultivation on planter’s own land|
|(iv) ryothi||cultivation on ryot’s land|
Fill in the blanks:
(a) Growers of wood in Europe saw __________ as a crop which would provide competition to their earnings.
(b) The demand for indigo increased in late-eighteenth century because of __________.
(c) The international demand for indigo was affected by the discovery of __________.
(d) The Champaran Movement was against __________.
(b) industrial revolution,
(d) indigo planters.
Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.
The main features of the Permanent Settlement were :
- The rajas and taluqdars were recognised as zamindars.
- They were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company. The amount to be paid was fixed permanently.
- It encouraged the zamindars to invest in improving the land.
- Since the revenue demand of the state would not be increased the zamindar would benefit from increased production from the land.
- If any of them failed to fulfil these conditions, he was ousted from his land and the government did not hesitate in putting his zamindari to auction.
How was the Mahalwari system different from the permanent Settlement?
|Permanent Settlement||Mahalwari Settlement|
|1. Permanent Settlement was introduced in Bihar and Bengal.||1. The system of Mahalwari was introduced in western part of Gangetic Valley, North-West Province, parts of Central India and the Punjab.|
|2. It was introduced in 1793.||2. It came into effect in 1822.|
|3. The amount to be paid as land revenue was fixed. The government could not enhance the land revenue.||3. The amount of land revenue was revised periodically. The government could revise the revenue.|
|4. The zamindar had the charge of collecting the revenue.||4. The charge of collecting the revenue and paying it to the Company was given to the village headman.|
For the government Mahalwari ssytem was an improvement over the Permanent settlement.
Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.
The problems created by the Munro system of fixing revenues were :
(i) Driven by the desire to increase the income from land, revenue officials (Captain Alexander Read and Thomas Munro) fixed too high a revenue demand. Peasants were unable to pay, ryots fled the countryside, and villagers became deserted in several areas.
(ii) Optimistic officials had imagined that the new system would transform the peasants into rich enterprising farmers. But this did not happen.
Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?
Ryots were reluctant to grow indigo because:
(a) The indigo system was intensely oppressive.
(b) Indigo could be cultivated only on fertile lands, and these were all already densely populated.
(c) Peasants who were initially tempted by the loans soon realised how harsh the system was. The price they got for the indigo they produced was very low and the cycle of loans never ended.
(d) The planters usually insisted that indigo be cultivated on the best soils in which peasants preferred to cultivate rice.
(e) Indigo had deep roots and it exhausted the soil rapidly. After an indigo harvest the land could not be sown with rice.
What were the circumstances which led to the evenual collapse of indigo production in Bengal?
(i) In March 1859, thousands of ryots in Bengal refused to grow indigo. As the rebellion spread, ryots refused to pay rents to the planters and attacked indigo factories armed with swords and spears, bows and arrows.
(ii) Ryotes swore they would no longer take advances to sow indigo nor be bullied by the planter’s lathiyals.
(iii) The government set-up the Indigo Commission to enquire into the system of indigo production. The Commission held the planters guilty and criticised them for the corecive methods they used with indigo cultivators.
(iv) The Indigo Commission declared that indigo production was not profitable for ryots. The Commission asked the ryots to fulfil their existing contracts but also told them that they could refuse to produce indigo in future.
Find out more about the Champaran Movement and Mahatma Gandhi’s role in it.
When the indigo production collapsed in Bengal, the European planters of indigo shifted their operations to Bihar. When Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa, a peasant from Bihar persuaded him to visit Champaran and see the plight of the indigo cultivators there.
Role of Mahatma Gandhi : Mahatma Gandhi’s visit in 1917 marked the beginning of the Champaran movement against the indigo planters. The European planters oppressed the peasants. Gandhiji reached Champaran in 1917 to witness the miserable conditions of the peasants. The district officials ordered him to leave Champaran but he refused to comply the orders and started the Satyagraha.
Look into the history of either tea or coffee plantations in India. See how the life of workers in these plantations was similar to or different from that of workers in indigo plantations.
Imagine a conversation between a planter and a peasant who is being forced to grow indigo. What reasons would the planter give to persuade the peasant ? What problems would the peasant point out ? Enact their conversation.
Hints : (i) Why are you forcing me to sign the contract?
(ii) Contract should be done on mutual terms and conditions. These should be useful to peasant also. I should get enough amount of money as a salary for my labour and for the work of my other family members.
(iii) I require a reasonably good house to live in. There should be a hospital for the workers. All medical facilities should be provided to the labourers. There should be a school, where my children could go to take education. My duty hours should be fixed. On every Saturday should be paid my salary as well as extra allowances for my work.
Land tax should be charged from Zamindars directly. Otherwise, I am not willing to sow indigo. If you or your agent agree with my terms I will work only for one or two crops. For next period new and more favourable terms and conditions should be settled. The cost of production should be decided and settled with mutual consultation.
HBSE 8th Class History Ruling the Countryside Important Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What did the Company have to do as Diwan?
As Diwan, the Company became the chief financial administrator of the territory under its control. Now it had to think of administering the land and organising its revenue resources.
When and where was the Permanent Settlement intorduced?
Permanent Settlement was mainly introduced in the province of Bengal in 1793.
What were the consequences of 1770 famine in Bengal?
In the terrible famine of 1770, ten million people were killed in Bengal. About one- third of the population was wiped out.
How could the zamindar benefit from Permanent Settlement?
The revenue was kept fixed under Permanent Settlement. Since the revenue demand of the state would not be increased, the zsamindar would benefit from increased production from the land.
Why did the Company try to expand the cultivation of opium and indigo?
The Company tried to expand the cultivation of opium and indigo as the British realised that the countryside could not only yield revenue; it could also grow the crops that Europe requires.
Why did European cloth manu-facturers have to depend on woad?
European cloth manufacturers had to depend on woad because only small amounts of Indian indigo reached the European market and its price was very high.
Why did cloth dyers prefer indigo to woad as dye?
Cloth dyers preferred indigo as a dye because indigo produced a rich colour whereas the dye from woad was pale and dull.
Who were Nabobs?
In the 18th century the East India Company had given this name to its officials because they were following the life-style of the Indian customary.
From where was indigo produced?
The rich blue colour or indigo was produced from a plant called indigo.
Who introduced mahalwari settlement?
Where was the Kalamkari print created?
Kalamkari print was produced by the weavers in Andhra Pradesh.
Where was indigo cultivation initiated in India?
In Bengal province.
What was the impact of indigo cultivation on the soil?
Indigo plants had deep roots and it exhausted the soil. After indigo harvest, the land could not be sown with rice.
Why was the Indigo Commission appointed?
The Indigo Commission was appointed to enquire into the system of indigo production.
Short Answer Type Questions
Comment on the report of the Indigo Commission.
- The Commission held the planters guilty of oppressive methods used against the cultivators.
- It declared that indigo production was not profitable for ryots.
- It asked the ryots to fulfil their existing contracts but refuse to grow indigo in future.
What problems were faced by Bengal economy?
The problems that were faced by the Bengal economy were as under:
- Artisans were deserting villages since they were being forced to sell their goods to the Company at low prices.
- Peasants were unable to pay the dues that were being demanded from them.
- Artisanal production was in decline and agricultural cultivation showed signs of collapse.
Why did the cultivator find the system of Permanent Settlement oppressive?
The cultivator found the system of Permanent Settlement oppressive because the rent he paid to the zamindar was high and his right on the land was insecure. To pay the rent he had to often take a loan from the money-lender, and when he failed to pay the rent he was evicted from the land he had cultivated for generations.
Why were the planters reluctant to expand the area under nij cultivation?
The planters were reluctant to expand the area under nij cultivation as:
(a) Nij cultivation on large scale required many ploughs and bullocks. A planter with 1000 bighas would need 2000 ploughs. Investing on purchase and maintenance of ploughs was a big problem.
(b) The supplies could not be easily got from the peasants since their ploughs and bullocks were busy on their rice fields, exactly at the time that the indigo plants needed them.
What were the actions taken by the peasants under the indigo rebellion of 1859-60?
The actions taken by the peasants under indigo rebellion of 1859-60 were:
- Thousands of peasants refused to sow indigo on their land.
- The cultivators attacked the indigo factories.
- The ‘gomasthas’ or agents of the planters were beaten up in many places.
- The peasants also socially boycotted Indian workers working in European- owned plantations.
Why did the demand of indigo increase by the end of the eighteenth century?
- This was because, by this time Britain began to industrialise.
- In Britain, cotton production expanded dramatically.
- This created an enormous new demand for cloth dyes.
That was why, the demand of indigo increased by the end of the eighteenth century.
Name two problems created by the Permanent Settlement.
- Zamindars were now not interested in the improvement of land.
- The revenue was very high. So many zamindars were unable to pay this revenue. Thus, their zamindaris were sold off.
Long Answer Type Questions
Discuss how did the British East India Company becomes the Diwan?
In order to maintain the expenses of both the administrative bodies and the army, it was necessary for the British to increase their financial resources. Apart from trade, the British now focused their attention on different sources of revenue.
During the governorship of Lord Clive in 1765, the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II granted the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the East India Company. In return, the Company was to make an annual payment of ₹ 26 lakh to him.
What were the three major systems of land revenue followed by the British? Write the salient features of each.
The three major systems of land revenue followed by the British were:
- Permanent Settlement of Bengal
- Ryotwari System
- Mahalwari System
1. Permanent Settlement of Bengal:
- The zamindars were recognized as the owners or proprietors of the land.
- The zamindars could sell their lands and were also given the rights to transfer them, .
- The cultivators became tenants of the zamindars.
- The zamindars gave the government almost l/10th of the revenue collected by them from the cultivators.
- The revenue to be paid by the zamindars was fixed on a permanent basis,
(2) Ryotwari System : This system was introduced in parts of Madras and Bombay Presidencies. This system had the following features :
- The cultivators became the landowners.
- The land revenue assessment was made after the careful survey of the fields.
- The cultivators themselves deposited the land revenue.
(3) Mahalwari System: This system derives its name from the word Mahal which means a village or an estate.
The salient features of the system were :
- Collector went from village-to-village, inspecting the land, measuring the fields, and recording the customs and rights of different groups.
- The revenue was revised periodically and was not fixed,
- The village headman was responsible for collecting the revenue.
Discuss how the British people looked indigo cultivation as an opportunity.
- With a remarkable growth in indigo trade, commercial agents and officials of the Company began investing in indigo production.
- Many officials resigned from the Company job and looked after their indigo business.
- Those who had no money to produce indigo could get loans from the Company and the banks.
Look at the picture and answer the following questions :
(i) What is shown in the picture?
A weekly market in Murshidabad in Bengal.
(ii) When were these markets badly affected?
These markets were badly affected during economic crisis. .
Look at the following picture and answer the questions that follow :
(i) What is shown in the picture?
The Slave Revolt in St. Domingue, August 1791.
(ii) What did the African slaves do when they rose in rebellion in 1791?
They burnt the plantations and killed their rich planters.
(iii) When did France abolish slavery?
France abolished slavery in 1792.
Ruling the Countryside Class 8 HBSE Notes
- Mahal s In British revenue records mahal is a revenue estate which may be a village or a group of villages.
- Plantation: A large farm operated by a planter employing various forms of forced labour. Plantations are associated with the production of coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, tea and cotton.
- Bigha: A unit of measurement of land. Before British rule, the size of this area varied. In Bengal, the British standardised it to about one-third of an acre.
- Permanent Settlement: It was a system of revenue collection introduced in Bengal and Bihar by Cornwallis in 1793.
- Ryotwari System : The system of land revenue which was introduced in Madras and Bombay Presidencies.
Slave s A person who is owned by someone else, i.e., the slave owner.
- Civil Servants: Officials recruited for the administration of the territories and affairs of the English East India Company in India.
- Taluqdar : Taluqdar literally means “one who holds a taluq or a connection”.
- Jotedars : In some areas, village headmen were known as Jotedars. They were rich peasants having acquired vast area of land.
- Vat: A fermenting or storage vessel.