HBSE 10th Class English Grammar Figure of Speech

Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class English Solutions Grammar Figure of Speech Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 9th Class English Grammar Figure of Speech

Figure of Speech

A figure of speech is a word or phrase that has a meaning something different than its literal meaning. It can be a metaphor or a simile that is designed to further explain a concept.

(‘A figure of speech’ कोई ऐसा शब्द या शब्द समूह होता है जिसका अभिप्राय उसके शाब्दिक अर्थ से भिन्न होता है।)

I. Metaphor

Metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.

A metaphor is a figure of speech that refers, for rhetorical effect, to one thing by mentioning another thing.

(किसी एक चीज में आलंकारिक प्रभाव पैदा करने के लिए जब किसी दूसरी चीज का उदाहरण प्रस्तुत किया जाता है।) जैसे-
Lencho was an ox of a man.

यहाँ पर इस पंक्ति का अर्थ यह नहीं है कि Lencho एक बैल जैसी शक्ल वाला आदमी था, बल्कि इसका अर्थ यह है कि वह एक परिश्रमी आदमी था।

Metaphor is a figure of speech in which a similarity between two dissimilar objects has been suggested but not clearly stated with the help of ‘as’ or ‘like.’

(रूपक कथन का एक अंग होता है जिसमें दो असमान तत्त्वों के बीच में समानता का भाव पैदा किया जाता है, लेकिन इसमें यह समानता का भाव as ; जैसे like की तरह का प्रयोग करके नहीं किया जाता।)

HBSE 10th Class English Grammar Figure of Speech

Example 1

1. He has a heart of stone, (it means that he is a hard hearted person)
2. Huge mountains of clouds appeared before him. (very big)
3. There was a sea of sorrow in his life, (deep sadness)
4. My brother was boiling mad. (very angry)
5. The assignment was a breeze, (not difficult)
6. Her voice is music to his ears, (pleasing)
7. The skies of the future began to darken, (the coming time was going to be difficult)
8. It is going to be clear skies from now. (the coming time was going to be easy)
9. It is raining cats and dogs, (raining heavily)
10. All that glitters is not gold, (illusions)

Example 2

1. He left the job with a broken heart, (sad mood)
2. His monkey mind is always full of new ideas, (mischievous)
3. You live by the words, you die by the words, (keeping promises)
4. Kisses are the flowers of love in bloom, (comparison of kisses to a flower of love)
5. Her eyes were fireflies, (eyes glitter like fire flies-very beautiful)
6. I was lost in a sea of nameless faces, (a big unknown crowd)
7. The promise between us was a delicate flower, (very sensitive)
8. She cut him down with her words, (defeated)
9. Words are the weapons with which we wound, (hard spoken words)
10. My heart swelled with a sea of tears, (weeping bitterly)

Elements Of Metaphor

A metaphor can be analyzed into two elements.
(Metaphor को दो तत्त्वों में बाँटा जा सकता है।)

(a) Tenor: The subject to which the metaphoric word is applied.
(जिस कर्ता कारक के लिए रूपक शब्द का प्रयोग किया जाता है।)
जैसे-
“O My love’s a red, red rose.”
में My love

(b) Vehicle : The metaphoric word itself.
(स्वयं में metaphoric word)
जैसे उपरोक्त उदाहरण में “rose”.

Types of Metaphor:

1. Mixed Metaphor : The use of two or more diversel incongruous metaphoric vehicles in the same expression creats a mixed metaphor.
(दो भिन्न या असंगत metaphoric vehicles का एक ही भाव में प्रयोग किया जाना)
जैसे-
(i) Girding up his lions, the chairman ploughed through the mountainous agenda.
(ii) To take arms against a sea of troubles.
(ii) If we can hit that bull’s-eye then the rest of the dominoes will fall like a house of cards.

2. Compound or loose metaphor : It is a type of metaphor that catches the mind with several points of similarity.
(यह इस प्रकार का metaphor है जो कई प्रकार की समानताओं से मन को बाँधता है।)
He has the wild stag’s foot.

यह Phrase : grace, speed और daring के भाव को पैदा करती है।

3. Dead metaphor :
A metaphor which is so commonly used that we don’t find any discrepancy or difference between the vehicle and tenor. Such metaphor loses its metaphorical beauty and freshness.

HBSE 10th Class English Grammar Figure of Speech

Dead metaphor of metaphoric word (vehicle) का उसके subject (tenor) से भेद करना कठिन होता है।
e.g.
(i) the heart of the matter
(ii) the legs of a table
(iii) to grasp a concept
(iv) to gather what you have understood.

4. Implicit metaphor :
A metaphor in which tenor (i.e. the subject) is not stated but is implied by the verbal context. In this type only vehicle (metaphoric word) is stated. 57 4101 metaphoric word af subject (i.e. tenor) नहीं दिया होता केवल metaphoric word (vehicle) ही दिया होता है।
e.g.,
(i) Shut your trap!
इस वाक्य में listener का मुँह अस्पष्ट tenor (कर्ता) है।

(ii) That seed was too frail to survive the storm of its sorrows.
उपरोक्त उदाहरण में “seed” एक अवर्णित tenor (मनुष्य) के लिए एक vehicle (metaphoric word) है।

5. Metonymy metaphor :
The term (vehicle) for one thing is applied to another with which it has become closely associated in experience.
(जब एक रूपक शब्द (vehicle) का प्रयोग बिल्कुल उसी जैसी किसी अन्य चीज के साथ किया जाता है।)
e.g.,
(i) “the crown” is used for the king.
(ii) “Hollywood” is used for the film industry.
(iii) “I have read all of milton” milton mean all the writings of milton.
(iv) “doublet and hose ought to show itself courageous (males) to petticoat (females).

6. Synecdoche metaphor :
A part of something is used to signify the whole or the whole is used to signify apart.
(जब एक भाग का प्रयोग पूरे को प्रदर्शित करने के लिए या पूरे का प्रयोग एक भाग को प्रदर्शित करने के लिए किया जाता है।)
e.g.,
(i) “ten hand”-for ten workers.
(ii) “blind mouths”-for corrupt and greedy clergy used by milton in Lycidas.
(iii) “a hundred sails”-for ships

7. Submerged metaphor :
In which the metaphorical word (vehicle) is implied or indicated by one aspect.
जिसमें रूपक शब्द (vehicle) एक पहलू के द्वारा व्यक्त किया जाता है।
e.g.,
my winged thought
उपरोक्त उदाहरण में श्रोतागण पक्षी के बारे में सोचते हैं।

8. Implied metaphor :
It is not clearly stated or obvious that compares two things by using adjectives that commonly describe one thing but are used to describe another comparing the two.
(इसमें विशेषणों का प्रयोग एक वस्तु को स्पष्ट करने के लिए किया जाता है लेकिन दूसरी वस्तु की तुलना भी कर दी जाती है।)
e.g.,
(i)”Golden baked skin”.
उपरोक्त उदाहरण में बेकरी वस्तुओं की तुलना skin से की गई है।
(ii) “green blades of nausea”.
(iii) leafy golden sunset.

9. Absolute metaphor :
Absolute metaphor denotes a figure or a concept that cannot be reduced to or replaced with sorely conceptual thought and language.
(एक ऐसा भाव जिसका अवमूल्यन नहीं किया जा सकता।)
e.g.,
“light-for truth
“seafaring – for human existence

HBSE 10th Class English Grammar Figure of Speech

* Personification : Personification is a figure related to metaphor in which an inanimate object or an abstract concept is spoken of as though it were endowed with life or with human feelings.
Milton wrote in paradise lost.

“Sky lowered, and muttering thunder, some sad drops Wept at completing of the mortal sin.”
उपरोक्त वाक्य में निर्जीव तत्त्वों जैसे बादल, गर्जन, बूंदों को सजीव करके दिखाया गया है।

“Little sorrows sit and weep.’-William Blake
“Confusion now hath made his masterpiece.’-William Shakespeare

Exercise 1

State the type of metaphor
1. “Are you a man or a mouse”
2. I have read all of Shakespeare.
3. the sceptre
4. “wheels”
5. He has the wild stag’s foot.
6. leafy golden sunset.
7. To grasp a concept.
8. Shut your trap! ’
9. “Hollywood”
10. To take arms against a sea of troubles.
Answers:
1. dead metaphor
2. metonymy metaphor
3. metonymy metaphor
4. synecdoche metaphor
5. compound metaphor
6. implied metaphor
7. dead metaphor
8. implicit metaphor
9. metonymy metaphor
10. mixed metaphor

II. Simile

Simile is a stated comparison between two different things that have certain qualities in common.

Example 1

1. Her words were as dull as a dirt.
2. Our soldiers are as brave as lions.
3. He is as cunning as a fox.
4. His cheeks are red like a rose.
5. The water well was as dry as a bone.
6. He is as funny as a monkey.
7. O my Luve’s like a red red rose.
8. He is a big as an elephant.
9. The gathering is as silent as the grave.
10. They fight like cats and dogs.

Example 2

1. The truth was like a bad taste on his tongue.
2. The handshake felt like warm laundry.
3. She is as wise as an owl.
4. The clouds were like ice-cream castles in the sky.
5. When he reached the top of the hill, he felt as strong as a steel gate.
6. Her hair was a soft as a spider web.
7. The man held the blanket like a memory.
8. The river flows like a stream of glass.
9. The town square was buzzing like a beehive.
10. The flowers were as soft as thoughts of budding love.
In making comparison of two things when the words ‘like ’or ‘as’ are used, it means the simile device is used in that sentence.

Difference between ‘Simile’ and ‘Metaphor’.
Simile : Similarity is suggested with the help of ‘ as’ or ‘ like’.
‘as’ और ‘like’ का प्रयोग करके समानता का भाव पैदा किया जाता है।
जैसे
“O My love’s like a red, red rose.”

Metaphor : Similarity between two dissimilar object is suggested without using ‘as’ or ‘like’.
रूपक : बिना ‘as’ or like’ के प्रयोग के दो असमान तत्त्वों के बीच में समानता का भाव पैदा किया जाता है। जैसे-
“O My love’s a red, red rose.”

HBSE 10th Class English Grammar Figure of Speech

III. Rhyme Scheme

A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhymes at the end of each line of a poem or song. It is usually referred to by using letters to indicate which lines rhymes.
(किसी कविता या गीत की प्रत्येक पंक्ति के अंत में एक जैसी लय वाले शब्दों का प्रयोग किया जाना Rhyme Scheme है।)

Example
Twinkle, twinkle little star 1. (a)
How I wonder what you are 2. (a)
Up above the world so high 3. (b)
Like a diamond in the sky. 4. (b)

यहाँ पर Line और Line 2 के अंत में star और are एक जैसी लय प्रस्तुत करते हैं, अतः इनकी rhyme scheme aa है। जबकि Line 3 और Line 4 में high और sky Line 1 और Line 2 से भिन्न लय प्रकट करते हैं, अतः इनकी rhyme scheme bb है।

इसी प्रकार से

Twinkle, twinkle little star 5. (a)
How I wonder what you are 6. (a)
When the blazing sun is gone. 7. (c)
When the nothing shines upon 8. (c)
Then you show your little light 9. (d)
Twinkle, twinkle all the night 10. (d)
Twinkje, twinkle little star 11. (a)
How I wonder what you are 12. (a)
अतः इस poem की rhyme scheme aa bb aa cc dd aa है।

HBSE 10th Class English Grammar Figure of Speech

Types of Rhyme Scheme:

1. Alternate rhyme : It is also known as ab ab rhyme.
The way a crow (a)
Shook down on me (b)
The dust of snow (a)
From a hemlock tree (b)

2. Ballade : It contains three stanzas with rhyme scheme of ab abb cbc be be.
3. Monorhyme : It is a poem in which every line uses the same rhyme scheme.
4. Couplet: It contains two line stanzas with a a, bb, c c, d d, rhyme scheme.

Belinda lived in a little white house (a)
With a little black kitten and a little grey mouse (a)
And a little yellow dog and a little red wagon (b)
And a realio, trulio, little pet dragon (b)
………
Now the name of the little black kitten was ink (c)
And the little grey mouse she called him blink (c)
And the little yellow dog was sharp as mustard (d)
But the dragon was a coward, and she called him custard (d)
अतः poem ‘The Tale of custard the Dragon’ एक Couplet है।

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